The Kingdom of Kerma was an ancient civilization that existed between 2500 BC and 1500 BC, regarded as the first Nubian state located in current Kerma town on the east bank of the Nile, around 620 km northward of Khartoum.
The archaeological site of Kerma owes its reputation to the two mudbrick monuments noted by European travelers as early as 1820. The descriptions and drawings made by these explorers—notably F. Cailliaud, L. M. Linant de Bellefonds, and K. R. Lepsius—are still considered first-rate documents today. Already at this time, these mysterious massifs are called Deffufa, a Nubian word used to describe a monument of a certain height constructed of mud brick reaches an 18-meter height as in the Western Deffufa, which is well preserved now and has an interesting museum nearby.
The third archaeological site is the eastern Deffufa can be found to the east of its western counterpart with 2km with smaller structure and functioned as a cemetery.